Konsep Intelligent Rasulullah SAW

Sebagai seorang ahli strategi perang, Nabi Muhammad Saw sudah memikirkan pentingnya peran seorang intelejen untuk menghadapi musuh. Konsep-konsep intelejen modern yang dikenal sekarang, bahkan sudah dilakukan Rasulullah pada jamannya.

Beliau menugaskan para intelejennya untuk memata-matai gerakan musuh dan orang-orang yang dianggap munafik. Para agen intelejen Rasulullah juga wajib memegang teguh daftar nama-nama orang munafik itu. Daftar nama mereka harus dihafal, tidak boleh dicatat dan tidak boleh jatuh ke tangan orang lain agar tidak menimbulkan keresahan. Ciri orang munafik yang masuk daftar hitam Rasulullah adalah Rasulullah tidak ikut menyolatkannya ketika orang bersangkutan meninggal.

Dalam memilih para agen intelijennya, Rasulullah menilainya dari kemampuan pribadi seseorang terutama dalam menyimpan rahasia. Karena itu, Rasulullah menerapkan sistem satu pintu untuk menyampaikan laporan dari hasil operasi intelijen para spionnya. Dengan sistem itu, para spion langsung menyampaikan laporannya pada Rasulullah Saw dan tidak boleh diketahui oleh orang lain, bahkan oleh para sahabat Rasulullah sendiri yang termasuk dalam Khulafaur Rashidin.

Dan sejarah Islam tercatat nama Hudzaifah Ibnul Yaman sebagai salah satu agen intelejen atau spion andalan Rasulullah dalam menghadapi orang-orang kafir dan munafik yang ingin memerangi Islam dan Muslim. Oleh Rasulullah, Ibnul Yaman dinilai sebagai orang yang bisa dipercaya, memiliki ingatan yang kuat cerdik dan cerdas dalam mengolah informasi. Ibnul Yaman juga dikenal sosok yang mudah bergaul yang memudahkannya untuk menjalankan operasi mata-mata.

Dalam Perang Khandaq (Perang Parit), Rasulullah menugaskan Ibnul Yaman untuk memata-matai pasukan kafir Quraisy dari Mekkah yang berkekuatan 10.000 ribu orang, ditambah bantuan kekuatan dari orang-orang Yahudi. Mereka berencana untuk menyerang kota Madinah yang hanya memiliki kekuatan 3.000 orang pasukan perang.

Untuk menghadapi pasukan Yahudi dan Quraisy dibawah pimpinan Abu Sufyan, Rasulullah menerapkan strategi bertahan dengan membuat parit di sekeliling kota Madinah. Pada suatu malam, Rasulullah mengutus Hudzaifah Ibnul Yaman untuk menyusup ke tengah pasukan lawan. Mudah baginya untuk berbaur ke dalam pasukan lawan, karena Hudzaifah memiliki darah suku bangsa di Mekkah sehingga tidak mudah dikenali sebagai orang asing.

Di pihak pasukan lawan, ada kebiasaan yang dilakukan setiap rapat. Sebelum rapat, orang-orang yang hadir harus memastikan bahwa orang-orang di sekelilingnya adalah teman dengan menanyakan nama dan asal-usulnya untuk memastikan bahwa pertemuan mereka aman.

Agar penyamarannya tidak terbongkar, Hudzaifah selalu lebih dulu mencekal tangan orang di sebelahnya dan bertanya “siapa namamu?, darimana asalmu?” Orang yang ditanya akan terkejut karena mengira posisi Hudzaifah pasti salah satu pimpinan tertinggi sehingga bertanya lebih dulu. Orang yang ditanyapun langsung menyebutkan nama serta asalnya. Hudzaifah pun selamat dan bisa mengikuti rapat serta mendapatkan informasi penting dari hasil rapat tersebut. Salah satunya, informasi bahwa pasukan Abu Sufyan akan mundur karena merasa pasukannya tidak akan memenangkan pertempuran melawan Rasulullah dan pasukannya di kota Madinah.

Dalam melaksanakan tugasnya sebagai mata-mata, Hudzaifah juga sangat hati-hati dan tidak bersikap yang bisa menimbulkan kecurigaan. Hudzaifah juga sangat kuat memegang teguh kepercayaan yang telah diberikan Rasulullah Saw kepadanya untuk memegang daftar orang-orang munafik. Bahkan ketika sahabat Rasulullah Saw, Umar bin Khattab menanyakan perihal daftar nama itu, Hudzaifah menolak memberikannya.

Untuk mengetahui siapa orang-orang yang masuk daftar orang munafik itu, Umar hanya bisa mengamati jika ada rakyatnya yang meninggal dan Hudzaifah tidak menyolatkannya, maka orang itulah orang munafik itu.

Sebagai negara yang memiliki kedaulatan, Madinah (pada zaman Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (SAW) juga memiliki sejumlah perangkat fital untuk melindungi diri, baik ancaman dari luar, maupun dalam. Dan intelijen adalah salah satu perangkat itu.

Terutama saat terjadi krisis antara Madinah dengan musuh-musuh dakwah, seperti Quraish, beberapa kabilah Yahudi sampai imperium Romawi, kekuatan intelijen Muslim telah melakukan perannya dengan sangat baik. Sehingga tak jarang, berbagai pertempuran dimenangkan berkat lihainya para informan, dalam memperoleh informasi mengenai kekuatan lawan. Sekalipun tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa ada faktor lainnya yang juga ikut berperan, bantuan Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala (SWT).

Tidak hanya para sahabat Rasulullah SAW yang bergerak dalam sektor ini. Beliau sendiri pernah melakukan aktivitas intelijen di beberapa kesempatan.
Nah, untuk mengetahu lebih lanjut mengenai kiprah para intel Muslim di masa Rasulullah SAW, silahkan membaca lebih lanjut ulasannya dalam Ihwal edisi ini. Selamat mengikuti…

Perang Intelijen Saat Perang Badar

Para informan sama-sama melakukan peran mereka. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (SAW) sendiri ikut ambil bagian dalam aktivitas ini
Kala itu, Rasulullah (SAW) bertolak dari desa Dafiran, untuk melakukan perjalanan menuju sebuah tempat dekat Badar. Tidak ada yang menemani perjalanan beliau, kecuali Abu Bakar Ash Shiddiq Radhiyallahu anhu (RA). Di tempat itu, beliau bertemu dengar seorang laki-laki tua yang tinggal di pedalaman gurun (badui). Rasulullah SAW lalu bertanya perihal kedatangan kaum Quraish, juga kedatangan pasukan beliau sendiri. Lelaki itu menolak memberikan informasi, kecuali setelah beliau berdua membuka identitas.

Rasulullah SAW tidak menyerah dengan jawaban itu, beliau membalas, ”Jika engkau memberi tahu kami, maka kami memberi tahu kalian.” Memperoleh jawaban demikian, orang tua itu memastikan,”Apakah dengan memberi tahu tentang mereka, kalian memberi tahu dari siapa kalian?” Rasulullah SAW menjawab, ”Iya.”

Akhirnya lelaki tua itu membuka mulut, ”Telah sampai kepadaku berita bahwa Muhammad dan para sahabatnya keluar dari Madinah pada hari begini-begini. Jika yang memberitahuku jujur, maka mereka hari ini sudah sampai tempat begini-begini. Dan telah sampai kabar kepadaku bahwa Quraish keluar dari Makkah pada hari begini-begini, kalau yang memberi tahuku jujur, maka pada hari ini mereka sudah sampai tempat begini-begini.”

Setelah lelaki itu memberikan informasinya, ia ganti bertanya kepada Rasulullah SAW, “Dari siapa kalian?” Rasulullah SAW menjawab sambil berlalu meninggalkan lelaki tua itu, ”Kami dari air…”

Informasi yang diberikan laki-laki tua itu amatlah berharga bagi umat Islam. Karena dengan mengetahui kondisi musuh, maka pasukan Islam memiliki persiapan lebih matang dan informasi itu bisa dijadikan pijakan dalam menentukan strategi bertempur. Bahkan lebih dari itu, walau mendapat informasi lengkap, karahasiaan identitas kaum Muslimin tetap terjaga. Ini bisa terwujud karena Rasulullah SAW menyembunyikan identitas. Maka pihak Quraish pun tidak bisa mengorek keterangan dari laki-laki Badui tersebut mengenai kondisi pasukan Muslimin.

Rasulullah SAW tidak hanya menyembunyikan identitas, tapi beliau menutup kemungkinan laki-laki itu untuk berpikir bahwa beliau berdua begian dari kelompok Muslim, dengan menanyakan keadaan pasukan Muslim sekaligus pasukan Quraish kepadanya. Tentu cara yang ditempuh Rasulullah SAW ini adalah cara yang amat cerdik.

Peristiwa yang disebutkan oleh Ibnu Hisyam dalam As Sirah An Nabawiyah (2/459) itu menunjukkan bahwa praktek intelijen telah digunakan sejak masa Rasulullah SAW, juga menunjukkan bahwa beliau sendiri amat memperhatikan pentingnya aktivitas ini, guna melawan kekuatan Quraish.

Tidak hanya kaum Muslimin yang melakuan pengintaian, pihak Quraish juga memiliki orang-orang pilihan untuk melakukan spionase. Ibnu Hisyam menyebutkan bahwa setelah berdekatan dengan lembah Badar, kaum Quraish mengutus Umair bin Wahb Al Jamhi, untuk mencari tahu kekuatan pasukan Muslimin.

Tidak membutuhkan waktu lama, laki-laki ini kembali dengan membawa kabar bahwa jumlah pasukan Muslimin sebanyak 300 laki-laki, dengan beberapa tambahan. Akan tetapi, ‘intel musyrikin’ ini masih belum puas dengan informasi ini. Ia minta izin untuk kembali, guna memastikan apakah jumlah itu jebakan, atau masih ada bantuan pasukan lainnya. Dan setelah ia melakukan pengintaian lagi, ia begitu yakin, ”Mereka tidak memiliki tempat berlindung, kecuali dengan pedang-pedang mereka,” katanya

Mengetahui Kekuatan Musuh dari Jumlah Logistik

Adapula aktivitas intelijen lainnya. Rasulullah SAW kembali ke pasukan, tapi beliau masih perlu mengutus Ali bin Abi Thalib, Az Zubair bin Awam, dan Sa’ad bin Abi Waqash untuk mencari informasi mengenai kekuatan pasukan musuh. Sedangkan Rasulullah SAW menyusul kemudian.

Dikisahkan, setelah dekat sumur Badar Ali bin Abi Thalib beserta Az Zubair bin Awam bertemu dengan dua orang budak. Setelah ditanya, mereka mengaku sebagai pemberi minum kaum Quraish. Namun, karena pengakuan itu, mereka berdua dipukuli oleh sekelompok orang yang juga berada di tempat itu. Hingga akhirnya, mereka mengatakan bahwa mereka pembantu Abu Sufyan, dan sekelompok orang tersebut berhenti mumukul dan meninggalkan mereka berdua. Rasulullah SAW yang saat itu berada di tempat itu menegaskan kepada para sahabat bahwa pemukulan terhadap kedua budak itu menunjukkan bahwa keduanya berkata benar, bahwa mereka memang dari kaum Quraish.

Akhirnya ganti Rasulullah SAW yang bertanya kepada kedua budak itu, ”Berapa jumlah mereka?” Mereka menjawab, ”Banyak.” Rasulullah SAW kemudian menanyakan jumlah hewan yang dipotong untuk mereka setiap harinya. ”Kadang sembilan, kadang sepuluh ekor.” Informasi sederhana itu amat cukup bagi Rasulullah SAW, hingga akhirnya beliau berkesimpulan bahwa jumlah mereka antara sembilan ratus hingga seribu.

Informasi mengenai pasukan musuh terus-menerus dikumpulkan. Tidak hanya oleh Rasulullah SAW sendiri, tapi para sahabat juga ikut berpartisipasi. Seperti yang dilakukan oleh Basbas bin Amru dan Adi bin Abi Az Zaghba’. Mereka sama-sama bertolak menuju Badar. Setelah tiba di sumur Badar, mereka bertemu dua budak perempuan yang saling berebut mengambil air. “Besok atau lusa akan datang kafilah, bekerjalah untuk mereka…” Setelah itu, budak lainnya mengalah. Kedua sahabat Rasulullah SAW tersebut mendengar percakapan itu, akhirnya mereka kembali untuk memberi kabar kepada Rasulullah SAW mengenai kedatangan pasukan Quraish.

Itulah sekilas mengenai aktivitas intelijen menjelang meletusnya perang Badar, yang terjadi pada Jumat pagi, 17 Ramadhan tahun kedua setelah hijrah.

Boleh Berbohong Saat Perang

Dalam operasi intelijen, menyembunyikan identitas adalah hal mutlak diperlukan. Sebagaimana dilakukan Rasulullah SAW saat bertemu dengan laki-laki Badui, ketika beliau bermaksud mengorek keterangan. Kepada lelaki itu beliau tidak terus terang menjawab bahwa beliau adalah Rasulullah SAW, walau laki-laki itu bertanya. Beliau hanya jawab “Dari air…”, maksudnya diciptakan dari air mani.

Yang dilakukan Rasulullah SAW tidak bisa disebut kebohongan, tapi inilah yang disebut tauriyah, yakni mengungkapkan fakta, walau fakta itu bukan fakta yang diinginkan oleh lawan bicara.

Adapun berbohong dalam arti sesungguhnya, yakni mengungkapkan hal yang berbeda dengan fakta, Imam Al Ghazali yang diikuti oleh Imam An Nawawi, dalam Al Adzkar (hal. 608-610), menyatakan kebolehannya, jika dilakukan dalam peperangan dan untuk kemaslahatan umat Islam. Tapi ada satu syarat: bahwa itulah satu-satunya cara.

Pendapat tersebut berdasarkan pada Hadits yang diriwayatkan oleh Umu Kultsum, ”Dan aku tidak mendengar beliau memberi rukhshah (keringanan) sama sekali dari apa yang dikatakan oleh manusia, kecuali dalam tiga hal: peperangan, memperbaiki hubungan manusia, serta pembicaraan laki-laki terhadap istrinya atau istri terhadap suaminya. (Riwayat Al Bukhari).

Operasi Intelijen Madinah

Aktivitas intelijen Madinah, dari mencari informasi kekuatan dan menyusup ke barisan lawan, hingga mencari jejak

Kiprah intelijen Madinah, tidak hanya terekam saat perang Badar terjadi. Dalam beberapa kondisi krisis lainnya, peranan intelijen juga terlihat. Berikut ini, beberapa operasi intelijen Madinah, yang telah dicatat oleh para sejarawan Muslim.

Intel Madinah Menyusup ke Tengah Barisan Musuh

Saat Yahudi dan Quraish melakukan koalisi untuk melakukan penyerangan terhadap Madinah, pihak Muslim berhasil mengetahui rancana itu. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (SAW) kemudian memerintahkan para sahabat membuat parit, guna membentengi Madinah, hingga terjadilah perang Khandaq di bulan Syawal tahun ke-5 setelah hijrah.

Tatkala pasukan Quraish tertahan di luar parit, dan berhadapan dengan angin yang berhembus amat kencang, Rasulullah SAW segera memerintahkan Hudzaifah bin Yaman menyusup ke dalam berisan musuh. Tanpa banyak kesulitan, beliau berhasil bergabung dengan kelompok Quraish, dan mendapatkan informasi bahwa Abu Sufyan, memerintahkan pasukannya untuk kembali ke Makkah, disebabkan cuaca buruk.
Lebih dari itu, saat itu Hudzaifah sebenarnya memiliki peluang membunuh Abu Sufyan, ”Kalau seandainya Rasulullah SAW tidak berpesan kepadaku agar tidak ada yang terbunuh hingga aku kembali, maka aku akan membunuhnya dengan busur.” (As Sirah An Nabawiyah, 3/154,166)

Intel Quraish Tertangkap

Diriwayatkan oleh Abu Ishaq, kaum Quraish telah mengirim 40 atau 50 mata-mata ke Madinah. Mereka sempat mengelilingi kamp pasukan Muslim untuk membunuh salah satu dari mereka. Akan tetapi mereka berhasil ditangkap, namun kemudian mereka dibebaskan oleh Rasulullah SAW, dan dibiarkan kembali ke Makkah. Peristiwa ini terjadi menjelang Baiat Ridhwan.

Intel Madinah Ungkap Kekuatan Heraklius

Kala itu, tiga ribu pasukan Muslim sudah berada di Syam untuk melawan pasukan Heraklius. Pasukan Muslim berhasil memperoleh informasi bahwa kekuatan pasukan Romawi itu berjumlah 100 ribu orang dan mereka sudah berada di Mab, sebuah desa di Syam. Dengan bekal informasi itu, mereka hendak melaporkan kekuatan musuh ke Madinah, hingga Rasulullah SAW mengirim bantuan atau memerintahkan untuk tetap bertempur.
Tapi, Abdullah bin Rawahah selaku salah satu pemimpin terus memberi semangat agar mereka tetap bertempur, hingga pertempuran tidak dapat dielakkan. Peristiwa itu dikenal dengan Perang Mu’tah, yang terjadi pada bulan Jumadi Al Ula tahun ke-8 setelah hijrah.

Fathu Makkah, Intel Madinah Dahului Intel Quraish

Sebelum Rasulullah SAW keluar menuju Makkah, beliau telah memerintahkan para sahabatnya untuk mengirim mata-mata guna mencari tahu keadaan kaum kafir Quraish, sebagaimana diriwatkan oleh Imam At Thabarani dalam Al Mu’jam Al Kabir.

Dengan demikian, tak heran kalau di wilayah Mur Adz Dzahran, tempat Rasulullah SAW dan 10 ribu pasukan beliau singgah, berita mengenai Quraish sudah diketahui sedangkan berita mengenai gerakan pasukan Rasulullah SAW tidak ada yang mengetahui, termasuk oleh penduduk desa tersebut.
Berbeda dengan gerakan intelijen Madinah, di waktu yang sama, beberapa lelaki Quraish seperti Sufyan bin Harb, Hakim bin Hizam, serta Badil bin Warqa’ baru keluar untuk berusaha mencari informasi mengenai gerakan pasukan Muslim.

Dengan demikian, penduduk Makkah sendiri tidak sempat menyusun kekuatan secara matang, hingga terjadilah peristiwa Fathu Al Makkah pada bulan Ramadhan tahun ke-9 setelah hijrah.

Intelijen dalam Perang Hunain

Setelah Kabilah Hauzan mendengar bahwa Makkah sudah dikuasai oleh kaum Muslimin, Malik bin Auf An Nashri, salah satu pemuka kabilah mengumpulkan para pemuka lainnya. Mereka sepakat melakukan penyerangan terhadap Rasulullah SAW dan kaum Muslimin. Seperti biasanya, sebelum berangkat mereka mengirim beberapa mata-mata. Akan tetapi, mata-mata itu gagal dan tercerai berai, karena berhadapan dengan seorang penunggang kuda yang tidak mereka kenal.

Sebaliknya, Rasulullah SAW telah mengirim Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad Al Aslami, untuk menyusup, dan bermukim di Hauzan. Selama tinggal di sana, beliau berhasil mendapatkan informasi yang berasal dari pembesar Hauzan, Malik bin Aufah An Nashri. Informasi itu menyangkut semua hal yang terjadi di sana, termasuk kesepakatan mereka untuk melakukan serangan kepada Rasulullah SAW.

Akhirnya, Rasulullah SAW memutuskan membawa 12 ribu pasukan menuju Hauzan. Sesampai di lembah Hunain, ternyata pasukan Musyrikin sudah menunggu terlebih dahulu, hingga berkecamuklah Perang Hunain pada tahun ke-8 setelah hijrah, pasca Fathu Makkah.

Karz bin Jabir, Ahli Pencari Jejak

Mencari jejak adalah keahlian Karz bin Jabir, hingga Rasulullah SAW memerintahkannya untuk mengejar beberapa orang pembunuh penggembala Rasulullah SAW yang bernama Yasar. Tidak memerlukan waktu lama, Karz bin Jabir bersama beberapa orang lainya berhasil membekuk para pelaku dan membawa mereka ke hadapan Rasulullah SAW.

Penggunaan Sandi dalam Pertempuran

Seperti yang biasa berlaku dalam dunia intelijen dan militer modern, guna membedakan siapa kawan dan lawan, pasukan Muslim pada zaman Rasulullah SAW memiliki sandi khusus. Dalam berbagai peperangan berbagai macam sandi telah digunakan. Berikut ini sandi-sandi tersebut:

– Dalam pertempuran Khandaq dan Bani Quraidhah, pasukan Muslimin menggunakan sandi, “Haamiim, la yunsharun.” (Riwayat Abu Dawud), yang menurut salah satu penafsiran, bermakna bahwa Allah tidak bisa dikalahkan, karena Haamiim menurut penafsiran ini adalah salah satu dari nama Allah Ta’ala.

– Dalam pertempuran melawan Bani Malmuh, yang dilakukan malam hari, digunakan sandi, “Amit..amit.” (As Sirah An Nabawiyah, 4/472), yang maknanya, “bunuhlah…bunuhlah”.

– Sedangkan saat Fathu Makkah, perang Hunain dan Thaif sandi yang digunakan kaum Muhajirin adalah “Ya Bani Abdirrahman,” sedangkan sandi kabilah Khazraj adalah, “Ya, Bani Abdillah,” dan sandi kabilah Aus adalah “Ya Bani Ubaidillah.”

– Di kesempatan lain Rasulullah SAW saat melepas pasukan kecil yang dipimpin oleh Talhah, beliau bersabda, ”Sandi kalian Ya Ashr.” (Riwayat Ibnu Abi Syaibah). Ashr bermakna sepuluh, menggunakan sandi ini karena jumlah mereka sepuluh orang.

Memeriksa Boleh, Memaksa Mengaku Dilarang

Dalam interogasi sering terjadi penyiksaan untuk mendapat pengakuan. Bolehkah itu dilakukan?
Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah termasuk golongan Muhajirin. Bahkan beliau adalah salah satu ahlu Badar, dan sudah tinggal di Madinah selama beberapa tahun bersama Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (SAW). Suatu kali ia merasa risau atas rencana Rasulullah SAW mengirim pasukan ke Makkah karena takut terjadi apa-apa atas keluarganya yang masih tinggal di sana.

Hatib kemudian punya inisiatif mengabarkan kepada para keluarganya mengenai rencana Rasulullah SAW itu secara diam-diam. Caranya, dengan menitipkan sebuah surat kepada salah satu wanita budak Bani Abdul Muthalib untuk disampaikan kepada keluarganya itu. Tentu, yang dilakukan Hatib bisa membocorkan rahasia rencana penyerangan ke Makkah. Dan di sini keselamatan ribuan pasukan Muslim menjadi taruhannya.

Rasulullah SAW menerima “kabar langit” tentang apa yang dilakukan Hatib. Beliau kemudian segera mengutus Ali bin Abi Thalib dan Zubair bin Awwam, untuk mengejar wanita itu. Ternyata, wanita pembawa pesan itu sudah sampai di tempat persinggahan Al Khaliqah, yang berjarak 12 mil dari Madinah.

Setelah mendapatinya, kedua sahabat Rasulullah SAW tersebut meminta wanita itu turun dari kendaraan, dan memeriksa kendaraan yang ditungganginya. Akan tetapi mereka tidak menemui apa yang dicari. Mereka yakin bahwa yang dikatakan Rasulullah SAW pasti benar, hingga Ali bin Abi Thalib mengatakan, ”Tunjukkan tulisan itu! Atau kami akan memeriksamu!” Melihat keduanya tampak serius, wanita itu mengeluarkan tulisan yang diselipkan di sela-sela kain di kepalanya.

Setelah memperoleh bukti yang jelas, Rasulullah SAW memanggil Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, guna mengatahui apa yang mendorongnya berbuat demikian. “Wahai Hatib, kenapa engkau melakukan hal ini?” Hatib menjawab, ”Wahai Rasulullah, demi Allah saya benar-benar orang yang beriman terhadap Allah dan Rasul-Nya. Saya tidak berubah dan menggantinya. Hanya saya tidak memiliki keluarga, sedangkan anak-anak saya berada dalam asuhan mereka (Quraish), maka saya melakukan itu untuk mereka.”

Saat itu, Umar bin Al Khaththab yang ikut serta bersama Rasulullah SAW kelihatan marah. ”Wahai Rasulullah,” kata Umar, “Izinkan saya untuk memenggal lehernya, sesungguhnya laki-laki ini telah melakukan nifaq.” Rasulullah SAW membalas perkataan Umar, ”Tidak tahukah engkau wahai Umar, bahwa Allah telah memperhatikan ahlu Badar, dan berfirman, ”Kerjakan semau kalian, Aku telah mengampuni kalian.” (As Sirah An Nabawiyah, 4/308).

Syaikh Said Ramadhan Al Buti menyebutkan dalam bukunya, Fiqh As Sirah, bahwa beberapa pihak berpendapat bolehnya menggunakan berbagai cara agar tersangka mengaku. Mereka mengambil argumen dari kisah Ali yang menghardik dan mengancam budak Bani Abdul Muthalib itu.

Ulama Syiria ini menjelaskan bahwa kisah di atas tidak bisa dijadikan argumen untuk menopang pendapat itu, karena beberapa sebab.

Pertama, budak tersebut posisinya tidak lagi sebagai tersangka belaka, melainkan pelaku hakiki yang informasinya berasal dari wahyu. Dan ini bersifat qath’i, lebih kuat daripada iqrar (pengakuan) si pelaku sendiri. Sehingga praktek penyiksaan tersangka agar yang bersangkutan mengaku tidak bisa diqiyaskan dengan kasus di atas, karena hanya didasari dengan prasangka dan perkiraan, yang berasal dari manusia biasa yang tidak maksum. Sehingga kisah di atas tidak bisa dijadikan dasar untuk melegalkan praktek penyiksaan guna mengorek pengakuan seorang yang statusnya masih tersangka.

Kedua, membuka baju untuk melakukan pemeriksaan tidak seperti penyiksaan dan penahanan, sehingga tidak pula bisa diqiyaskan. Yang pertama dibolehkan, yang kedua tidak dibolehkan.

Pengakuan karena Paksaan Tak Berlaku

Para ulama madzhab empat telah bersepakat bahwa pengakuan yang disebabkan paksaan tidak bisa dijadikan dasar untuk menjatuhkan hukuman. Berikut, pandapat mereka:

Madzhab Hanafi
Al Kasani menyebutkan, bahwa kerelaan adalah salah satu aspek yang menentukan bahwa sebuah pengakuan itu sah atau tidak. Dengan demikian, maka pengakuan orang yang dipaksa tidak sah. (Bada’i’ As Shana’i’, 7/224).

Madzhab Maliki
Qadhi Sahnun menyebutkan masalah hukum pihak yang mengaku setelah diancam, baik dengan diikat, dipenjara serta dipukul, tidak berlaku hadd. Imam Malik mengatakan, ”Tidak diberlakukan kepadanya hadd, kecuali ia mengakui hal itu dengan rasa aman dan tanpa rasa takut.” (Al Mudawwanah, 16/93).

Madzhab Syafi’i
Al Imrani mengatakan, ”Tidak diterima pengakuan orang yang dipaksa, Sabda Rasulullah SAW, ’dingkat (dimaafkan) untuk umatku kesalahan, lupa dan apa yang dipaksakan kepadanya.’ Dan karena orang yang dipaksa tidak masuk dalam golongkan mukallaf. (Al Bayan, 13/418).

Madzhab Hanbali
Ibnu Qudamah mengatakan, ”Kalau seorang laki-laki dipukul agar ia mengaku berzina, tidak wajib atasnya hadd, dan tidak bisa ditetapkan bahwa ia berzina. Saya tidak mengetahui para ulama khilaf, bahwa seorang yang dipaksa mengaku tidak wajib atasnya hadd.” (Al Mughni, 9/7181).

“Sesungguh banyak terdapat Pelajaran dari orang-orang terdahulu, Namun sedikit orang-orang yang mau berpikir dengan jernih.”

“wal tandzur nafsun maa qodamat lighodd”

Advertisements

Jejak Rasul

Temuramah dgn seorang Prof berbangsa Tatar.
Seorang Athiest, berbicara mengenai sejarah Islam,
hubungan org2 Tatar dibawah Kesultanan Mamluk & Kerajaan Melayu. dll..

Oleh Krew Jejak Rasul.

ni 2 hari lepas..

Internet is world’s ‘greatest spying machine’: Assange

LONDON – Julian Assange, the founder of whistleblower website WikiLeaks, on Tuesday warned that the Internet was the ‘greatest spying machine the world has ever seen’ and an obstacle to free speech. — PHOTO: REUTERS

 

LONDON – JULIAN Assange, the founder of whistleblower website WikiLeaks, on Tuesday warned that the Internet was the ‘greatest spying machine the world has ever seen’ and an obstacle to free speech.

Speaking to students at Britain’s prestigious Cambridge University, the former computer hacker claimed that the Internet, particularly social networking sites such as Facebook, gave governments greater scope for snooping.

‘There was actually a Facebook revolt in Cairo three or four years ago,’ Assange explained. ‘It was very small… After it, Facebook was used to round up all the principal participants and they were then beaten, interrogated and incarcerated.’

‘So while the Internet has in some ways an ability to let us know to an unprecedented level what government is doing… it is also the greatest spying machine the world has ever seen,’ he added.

The rise of technology was helping tyrannical regimes, said the 39-year-old Australian, who is currently fighting extradition to Sweden over allegations of sex offences.

‘It is not a technology that favours freedom of speech,’ he claimed. ‘It is not a technology that favours human rights. Rather it is a technology that can be used to set up a totalitarian spying regime, the likes of which we have never seen.’ — AFP

 

History of Inflation

A history of hyperinflation from Angola to Zimbabwe via the USA…
Angola (1991-1999)
Angola went through the worst inflation from 1991 to 1995. In early 1991, the highest denomination was 50,000 kwanzas. By 1994, it was 500,000 kwanzas. In the 1995 currency reform, 1 kwanza reajustado was exchanged for 1,000 kwanzas. The highest denomination in 1995 was 5,000,000 kwanzas reajustados. In the 1999 currency reform, 1 new kwanza was exchanged for 1,000,000 kwanzas reajustados. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 new kwanza = 1,000,000,000 pre-1991 kwanzas.

Argentina (1975-1991)
Argentina went through steady inflation from 1975 to 1991. At the beginning of 1975, the highest denomination was 1,000 pesos. In late 1976, the highest denomination was 5,000 pesos. In early 1979, the highest denomination was 10,000 pesos. By the end of 1981, the highest denomination was 1,000,000 pesos. In the 1983 currency reform, 1 Peso Argentino was exchanged for 10,000 pesos. In the 1985 currency reform, 1 austral was exchanged for 1,000 pesos argentine.

Hyperinflation continued reaching a peak annualized rate of 4,923.3 percent in December 1989. At that time, government expenditure reached 35.6 percent of GDP and the fiscal deficit was 7.6 percent of GDP.

In 1990 the Argentine government announced a stabilization plan which included:

  • Comprehensive liberalization of foreign trade and capital movements
  • Privatization of public enterprises and the deregulation of the economy
  • Reduction in the size of the public sector and reconstruction of the tax system
  • Creation of a new monetary system, including the establishment of a Currency Board in April 1991.

Disinflation was gradual, with inflation falling from 1,344 percent in 1990, 84 percent in 1991. In the 1992 currency reform, 1 new peso was exchanged for 10,000 australes. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 new peso = 100,000,000,000 pre-1983 pesos. The inflation rate for 1992 was 17.5 percent, 7.4 percent in 1993, 3.9 percent in 1994 and 1.6 percent in 1995. By 1995, government expenditure represented 27 percent of Argentina’s GDP.

Austria (1921-1922)
Austria became a republic after World War I. It continued to use the Krone as before in the Austria-Hungarian empire. However, post-war inflation, reaching a peak of 134 percent between 1921 and 1922, led to its collapse. The Krone was replaced by the Schilling at the rate of 10,000 Kronen equal 1 Schilling.

Belarus (1994-2002)
Belarus went through steady inflation from 1994 to 2002. In 1993, the highest denomination was 5,000 rublei. By 1999, it was 5,000,000 rublei. In the 2000 currency reform, the ruble was replaced by the new ruble at an exchange rate of 1 new ruble = 2,000 old rublei. The highest denomination in 2002 was 50,000 rublei, equal to 100,000,000 pre-2000 rublei.

Bolivia (1984-1986)
Before 1984, the highest denomination was 1,000 pesos bolivianos. By 1985, the highest denomination was 10 Million pesos bolivianos. In the 1987 currency reform, the peso boliviano was replaced by the boliviano which was pegged to US dollar.

Brazil (1986-1994)
For most of the early part of then 20th century, Brazil’s money was called Reis, meaning “kings”. By the 1930s the standard denomination was Mil Reis meaning a thousand kings. By 1942 the currency that devalued so much that the Vargas government instituted a monetary reform, changing the currency to cruzeiros (crosses) at a value of 1000 to 1.

In 1967 the cruzeiro was renamed to cruzeiro novo (new cruzeiro), and three zeros were dropped from all denominations. In 1970 the cruzeiro novo was renamed, dropping the “novo” and once again being called simply the cruzeiro. During the 1970’s while the Brazilian economy was growing at 10% a year, inflation was running anywhere between 15 to 300%.

By the mid 1980s inflation was out of control reaching a peak of 2000 percent. In 1986 three zeros were dropped and the cruzeiro became the cruzado (crusade). In 1989, another three zeroes are dropped and the cruzado becomes the cruzado novo.


A 500,000 Brazilian Cruzeiro bank note

In order to avoid confusion and not associate the new currency with previous monetary policy, the cruzado novo is renamed the cruzeiro with no change in value in 1990. By 1993, three more zeros are dropped from the cruzeiro which becomes known as the cruzeiro real. In 1994 the cruzero real is replaced by the real (royal), worth 2.75 old cruzeiros reais.

A 1960s cruzeiro was, in 1994, worth less than one trillionth of a US cent, after adjusting for multiple devaluations and note changes. In 1994, the following measures were enacted:

  • A constitutional amendment in 1994 which empowered the Central Bank not to finance the budget deficit
  • The Central Bank made it illegal for regional banks to buy government-issued bonds
  • Wages were frozen and a new currency — the real — was introduced as part of measures to de-index the economy.

As a result of these measures, prices dropped dramatically from July 1994 onwards and by 1997, inflation had been reduced to standard international levels. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 (1994) real = 2,700,000,000,000,000,000 pre-1930 reis.

Bosnia-Herzegovina (1993)
Bosnia-Hezegovina went through its worst inflation in 1993. In 1992, the highest denomination was 1,000 dinara. By 1993, the highest denomination was 100,000,000 dinara. In the Republika Srpska, the highest denomination was 10,000 dinara in 1992 and 10,000,000,000 dinara in 1993. 50,000,000,000 dinara notes were also printed in 1993 but never issued.

Chile (1971-1973)
Beginning in 1971, during the presidency of Salvador Allende, Chilean inflation began to rise and reached peaks of 508% in 1973. As a result of the hyperinflation, food became scarce and overpriced. The economic and social troubles culminated in the 1973 coup d’état that deposed the democratically-elected Allende and installed a military government led by Augusto Pinochet.

China (1939-1950)
China first started using paper money under the reign of Emporer Hien Tsung in 806-821 AD due to a shortage of copper for making coins. The Europeans would not know about paper money till Marco Polo account of it in his Travels some 450 years later. Paper was issued again in 910 A.D. and become regular after 960 A.D.

By 1020, the quantity of Chinese paper money has reached excessive levels. In 1160, the paper issues have become so numerous that they have become worthless. Emporer Kao Tsung begins reforms with a new issue to replace the old. By 1166 China is experiencing hyperinflation. This occurs again in 1448 with the Ming note.

Some years later, around 1455, China abandons paper money after over 600 years of experience. Europe would not begin using bank notes till 1661 with the first issue from the Bank of Sweden.

China saw an extended period of hyperinflation shortly after the Central Bank of China took complete control of the money supply and began issuing fiat currency. In June 1937, 3.41 yuan traded for one US dollar. By May 1949, one US dollar fetched 23,280,000 yuan for anyone who cared to have some. For more information on the subject click here.

Free City of Danzig (1923)
Danzig went through the worst inflation in 1923. In 1922, the highest denomination was 1,000 mark. By 1923, the highest denomination was 10,000,000,000 mark.

Ecuador (2000)
Officially pegged its currency to the US dollar on September 2000 after a 75% drop in value in early January that same year.

England (12th century onwards)
Under Henry I, the quality of England’s silver coins fall dramatically. In 1124, the right hands of the mint masters were cut off causing a temporary improvement in the quality. Henry II reformed the English coinage in 1158 thereby restoring the prestige of English money which was maintained for the next three centuries.

By the end of the War of the Roses (1455-1485), the English currency suffered badly from clipping and counterfeiting of coins. Henry VII tried to prohibit the use of foreign coins in 1498. The mainly European and Irish coins were also underweight but not to the extent of the English coins.

Henry VIII debased the coinage of England as a means of raising revenue from 1543 to 1551 in what is known as the “Great Debasement”. In 1560, Elizabeth I and her advisors, foremost among them being Sir Thomas Gresham (of Gresham’s Law) brought about stability by establishing the pound sterling and began to recall the earlier debased coinage and reminting them to remove the base metal component. The pound sterling was valued as one troy pound of high purity sterling silver.

In 1696 England’s silver coins, many of which are worn or clipped, were replaced with new. Full-weight silver coins.

Britain suffered through a long period of moderate inflation from 1935 to 1970. Below is a chart showing the falling value of the current British currency since inception (data from MeasuringWorth.com).

Greece (1944-1953)
During the German occupation of Greece (1941 to 1944), the monthly inflation rate peaked at 8.55 billion percent in 1944. Prices doubled every 28 hours. In 1943, the highest denomination was 25,000 drachmai. By 1944, the highest denomination was 100,000,000,000,000 drachmai

In the 1944 currency reform, 1 new drachma was exchanged for 50,000,000,000 drachmai. Another currency reform in 1953 replaced the drachma at an exchange rate of 1 new drachma = 1,000 old drachma. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 (1953) drachma = 50,000,000,000,000 pre-1944 drachmai.

France (1789-1797)
France did not start using paper notes until much later than other European nations due in part to the Mississippi Company debacle of 1719-1720.

In the spring of 1789 the French Assemblee decreed the issuance of 400 million paper livres, known as assignats, secured by the properties that had been confiscated from the Church during the revolution. Over the following years, the Assemblee continued issuing greater quantities of assignats and in addition to price controls, dictated a death sentence on anyone selling the notes at a discount to gold and silver livres. By late-1795 the amount had reached 40 billion and a new currency was issued, the mandat, which promptly lost 97% of its value over the next two years.

In 1797, both paper currencies were recalled and a new monetary system based upon gold was instituted. France also suffered through a long period of moderate inflation from 1944 to 1960.

Georgia (1995)
Georgia went through the worst inflation in 1994. In 1993, the highest denomination was 100,000 laris. By 1994, the highest denomination was 1,000,000 laris. In the 1995 currency reform, 1 new lari was exchanged for 1,000,000 laris.

Germany (1923-1924 and 1945-1948)
During WWI, Germany borrowed heavily expecting that they would win the war and have the losers repay the loans. In addition to these debts, Germany faced huge reparation payments. Together, these debts exceeded Germany’s GDP.

In 1923, when Germany could no longer pay reparations, French and Belgium troops moved in to occupy the Ruhr, Germany’s main industrial area. Without this major source of income, the government took to printing money which resulted in hyperinflation took hold. At its most severe, the monthly rate of inflation reached 3.25 billion percent, equivalent to prices doubling every 49 hours. The US Dollar to Mark conversion rate peaked at 80 billion.


Inflation 1923-24: A German woman feeding a stove with currency notes, which burn longer than the amount of firewood they can buy

Some countries eased off on Germany’s war reparation burden and a new interim currency, the Rentenmark, secured on mortgages on land and industrial property restored stability. In 1924, the Reichmark, replaces the Rentenmark and has an equivalent to the pre-war gold mark.

Germany suffered high inflation again after WWII. In the official markets ration cards and permits are more important than currency while on the black market cigarettes, soap, tinned beef and chocolate serve as currency. In 1948, Germany replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutschemark and abolished the price and wage controls and most of the rationing system.

Greece (1944-1953)
During the German occupation of Greece (1941 to 1944), the monthly inflation rate peaked at 8.55 billion percent. Prices doubled every 28 hours. Two currency reforms, one in 1944 and another in 1953, saw the new drachma replace 50 trillion pre-1944 drachma.

Hungary (1922-1924 and 1944-1946)
Hungary went through two hyperinflationary periods. From 1922 and 1924 the inflation in Hungary reached 98%. This seems quite timid when compared to the inflation rate of 41.9 quintillion percent reached in mid-1946 recorded as being the worst in modern history. At this rate prices doubled every 15 hours. By July 1946, the 1931 gold pengo is worth 130 trillion paper pengos.

The Hungarian National Bank has the dubious honour of circulating the largest denomination banknote – that being the 100 quintillion pengo.


A Hungarian man sweeps paper notes out of the gutter

Israel (1979-1985)
Inflation accelerated in the 1970s, rising steadily from 13% in 1971 to 111% in 1979. From 133% in 1980, it leaped to 191% in 1983 and then to 445% in 1984. In 1985 Israel froze all prices by law. In 1985, inflation fell to 185% (less than half the rate in 1984).

Within a few months, the authorities began to lift the price freeze on some items; in other cases it took almost a year. In 1986, inflation was down to just 19%.

Japan (1944-1948)
Japan first began printing paper money in the early part of the 14th century but the experiment was short lived.

In more recent times, Japan experienced post-WWII hyperinflation in which consumer prices rose by 5,300%. There is also the issuance of military yen (also known as banana money) to soldiers of both the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. This currency was first issued during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 and reached a crescendo during the Pacific War.

During this time, military yen was forced upon the local population of occupied territories. Military yen was printed without regard for inflation, unbacked by gold and could not be exchanged for Japanese yen. When the Japanese occupied Hong Kong, military yen was forcibly exchanged with Hong Kong dollars at a ratio of 1 to 2. Anyone caught with Hong Kong dollar was to be tortured.

After the exchange, the Japanese military purchased supplies and strategic goods from the neutral Portuguese port of Macau using Hong Kong dollars. On 6 September 1945, the Japanese Ministry of Finance announced that all military yen became void thereby leaving overseas holder of military yen with pieces of worthless paper.

Krajina (1993)
Krajina went through the worst inflation in 1993. In 1992, the highest denomination was 50,000 dinara. By 1993, the highest denomination was 50,000,000,000 dinara. This unrecognized country was reincorporated into Croatia in 1998.

Madagascar (2004)
The Madagascan franc lost nearly half its value in 2004. On 1 January 2005 the Madagascan ariary replaced the previous currency at a rate of 1 ariary for five Madagascan francs. In May 2005 there were riots over rising inflation suggesting the situation wasn’t over.

Mexico (2004)
Mexico defaulted on its external debt in 1982, and experienced several years of inflation. On 1 January 1993, the Bank of Mexico introduced a new currency, the nuevo peso which was equal to 1,000 old pesos.

Since the Mexico Peso Crisis of 1994 the value of the Mexico peso has plummeted by almost 60%. The government contends that the devaluation was necessary to decrease the account deficit.

Mongolian Empire (13th and 14th centuries)
Genghis Khan’s empire went through two hyperinflationary periods. Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis and then emperor of China, circulated paper money to replace that of the Chinese provincial governments. This currency was known as The First Mongol Issue. It depreciated rapidly after its short-lived success from 1260 to 1263. Currency reform occurred in 1264, and The Second Mongol Issue, equally irredeemable, and unlimited in issue, replaced the earlier notes at a ratio of 1:5.

This currency lasted for 1290 at which time it began falling in value till about 1310. It was replaced by a third issue at the same ratio of 1:5. Over-issue of these notes once again destroyed their value. During the final phase of the Mongol Dynasty in around 1350 huge efforts were unsuccessful in fixing the monetary situation.

“Population and trade had greatly increased, but the emissions of paper notes were suffered to largely outrun both, and the inevitable consequence was depreciation,” writes Alexander Del Mar in his History of Monetary Systems (1886). “All the beneficial effects of a currency which is allowed to expand with a growth of population and trade were now turned into those evil effects that flow from a currency emitted in excess of such growth.

“These effects were not slow to develop themselves. Excessive and too rapid augmentation of the currency, resulted in the entire subversion of the old order of society. The best families in the empire were ruined, a new set of men came into the control of public affairs, and the country became the scene of internecine warfare and confusion.”

The usurping Ming Dynasty issued yet more paper currency with the solemn legend: “This paper money shall have currency, and be used in all respects as if it were copper money”. There was no public confidence in the firmness of this declaration and at the outset the paper traded at 17:13 against copper coinage. Before long the ratio fell to 300:1.

Nicaragua (1987-1990)
Before 1987, the highest denomination was 1,000 cordobas. By 1987, it was 500,000 cordobas. Nicarauga went through a currency reform in 1988 which saw 1 new Cordoba replace 1,000 old cordobas. In the mid-1990 currency reform, 1 gold Cordoba equaled 5,000,000 new cordobas. Total impact of hyperinflation: 1 gold Cordoba = 5,000,000,000 pre-1987 cordobas.

Persian Empire (1294)
The city of Tabriz begins issuing paper money over a two month period with disastrous effects. Rashid al Din, prime minister of Persia describes both printing and paper money in his History of the World.

Peru (1984-1990)
Peru went through the worst inflation from 1984 to 1990. The highest denomination in 1984 was 50,000 soles de oro. By 1985, it was 500,000 soles de oro. In the 1985 currency reform, 1 intis was exchanged for 1000 soles de oro. In 1986, the highest denomination was 1,000 intis. It was 5,000,000 intis by 1990. In the 1991 currency reform, 1 nuevo sol was exchanged for 1,000,000 intis. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 nuevo sol = 1,000,000,000 pre 1985 soles de oro.

Poland (1922-1924 and 1990-1993)
Poland suffered two bouts of hyperinflation. The first occurred from 1922 to 1924 when inflation rates reached 275%. After three years of hyperinflation, the 1994 currency reform saw 10,000 old zlotych exchanged for 1 new zloty.

Romania (2000-2005)
Romania is still working through steady inflation. The highest denomination in 1998 was 100,000 lei. By 2000 it was 500,000 lei. In early 2005 it was 1,000,000 lei. In July 2005 the leu was replaced by the new leu at 10,000 old lei = 1 new leu. Inflation in 2005 was about 10%. In 2006 the highest denomination is 500 lei (= 5,000,000 old lei).

Ancient Rome
Early Roman coinage was entirely representative. It was copper and issued with a face value of about 3 times its commodity value. It was carefully made using the innovation of striking, rather than casting, and the dies used were of the highest quality and artistic complexity. They were extremely difficult to forge and the penalties were heavy.

The Romans were probably the first to obey their own monetary laws limiting the supply of coins. As a result for 178 years there is no evidence of demonetization. On the contrary, the value of money increased in value as did the population and economy.

This changed during the Second Punic War. Hannibal and his legendary elephants conquered from Carthage in North America, through silver rich Spain, to the Roman copper mines in northern Italy (modern-day Tuscany) and threatened Rome from the north. In response, the Romans began to over-issue underweight and overvalued coinage to finance the massive military effort which was required to repulse the enemy.

What came out afterwards was a very different Rome. It was much more militarist and expansionist in order to support its large military. Within 100 years Rome’s republican politics had subsided into what was effectively dictatorship.

By 270 AD, the precious metal content of Roman coins had fallen to only 4%. Emperor Diocletian issued vast amounts of debased copper coins which inevitably lead to price increases. Diocletian blamed the greed of merchants and in 301 AD issued the Edict of Prices declaring fixed prices with a death penalty for anyone selling above them. Merchants stopped selling goods but this led to penalties against hoarding. When merchants left their trade Diocletian countered with laws saying that every man had to pursue the occupation of their father. The penalty for not doing so was death.

In the words of Del Mar in his History of Monetary Systems, “for nearly two centuries, during which all that was admirable of Roman civilization saw its origin, its growth and its maturity. When the system fell Rome had lost its liberties. The state was to grow yet more powerful and dreaded, but that state and its people were no longer one.”

The former republic of Rome descended into essentially what was serfdom.

Russia (1921-1922 and 1992-1994)
Russia experienced 213% inflation during the Bolshevik Revolution and again during the first year of post-Soviet reform in 1992 when annual inflation peaked at 2520%. In 1993 the annual rate was 840%, and in 1994, 224%. The ruble devalued from about 100 r/$ in 1991 to about 30,000 r/$ in 1999.

Taiwan (late 1940s)
Severe inflation existed in the late 1940s due to factors such as corruption and the 2-2-8 Incident. Increasingly higher denominations were issued on the island, up to one million yuan. The new Taiwan dollar was issued in 1949 at a ratio of 40,000-to-1 against the old Taiwan yuan.

Turkey (1990s)
Throughout the 1990s Turkey dealt with severe inflation rates that finally crippled the economy into a recession in 2001. The highest denomination in 1995 was 1,000,000 lira. By 2000 it was 20,000,000 lira. Recently Turkey has achieved single digit inflation for the first time in decades, and in the 2005 currency reform, introduced the New Turkish Lira; 1 was exchanged for 1,000,000 old lira.


A 1,000,000 lira banknote, issued by Turkey

Ukraine (1993-1995)
Ukraine went through the worst inflation between 1993 and 1995 with inflation rates peaking at 1400% per month. Before 1993, the highest denomination was 1,000 karbovantsiv. By 1995, it was 1,000,000 karbovantsiv.

In 1996, the karbovantsiv was taken out of circulation, and was replaced by the hryvnya at an exchange rate of 100,000 karbovantsivi = 1 hryvnya (approx. US$0.20 at the time).


A 100,000 Ukrainian Karbovantsiv bank note

United States (1812-1814 and 1861-1865)
The United States has experienced two currency collapses. The first was the Continental Currency (“Not worth a Continental”) the American colonists used to finance the Revolutionary War. While the Americans won their independence, their currency was destroyed in the process.

The second were the Confederation notes. In an effort to finance the civil war with the north, the Confederate States of America issued vast amounts of money. At one point, the Secretary of the Treasury recommended that counterfeit money be utilized. Anyone holding a counterfeit bill was to exchange it for a government bond. The government would then stamp it “valid” and spend it.

Below is a chart showing the falling value of the current American currency since inception (data from MeasuringWorth.com).

Yap (late 1800s)
The island of Yap in the Pacific Ocean used varying sized stones as money, of which the largest weighing several tons were the most valuable. The stones had been brought by sea from the Island of Palau 210 km away. The journey was very perilous given the length of the voyage and the rough seas between the islands of Palau and Yap. Many of the stones were lost at sea.

The risk associated with procurement of the “money stones” initially made them highly valuable. The Yapese valued them because large stones were quite difficult to steal and were in relatively short supply. However, in 1874, an enterprising Irishman named David O’Keefe hit upon the idea of employing the Yapese to import more “money” in the form of shiploads of large stones, also from Palau. O’Keefe then traded these stones with the Yapese for other commodities such as sea cucumbers and copra.

Over time, the Yapese brought thousands of new stones to the island, debasing the value of the old ones. Today they are almost worthless, except as a tourist curiosity.


A large (approximately 8 feet in height) example of Yapese stone money

Yugoslavia (1989-1994)
Second worst hyperinflationary period in recent history with a monthly inflation rate of 5 quintillion percent. Between Oct 1, 1993 and January 24, 1994 prices doubled every sixteen hours on average.

At the end of it, one novi dinar = 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pre-1990 dinars. One account of the breakdown of the social structure is the example of a postman who waited a day to pay 780 phone bills with the equivalent of a few American pennies instead of trying to collect from the customers.


A 500,000,000,000 (500 billion) Yugoslav dinar banknote circa 1993, the largest nominal value ever officially printed in Yugoslavia, the final result of hyperinflation

Zaire (1989-1996)
Zaire went through a period of inflation between 1989 and 1996. In 1988, the highest denomination was 5,000 zaires. By 1992, it was 5,000,000 zaires. In the 1993 currency reform, 1 nouveau zaire was exchanged for 3,000,000 old zaires. The highest denomination in 1996 was 1,000,000 nouveaux zaires. In 1997, Zaire was renamed the Congo Democratic Republic and changed its currency to francs. 1 franc was exchanged for 100,000 nouveaux zaires. The overall impact of hyperinflation: One 1997 franc = 300 billion pre-1989 dinars.

Zimbabwe (1999-present)
The Rhodesian dollar (R$), adopted in 1970, following decimalization and the replacement of the pound as the currency, was set at a rate of 2 Rhodesian dollars = 1 pound (R$ 0.71 = USD $1.00). At the time of independence in 1980, one Zimbabwean dollar (of 100 cents) was worth US$1.50.

Since then, rampant inflation and the collapse of the economy have severely devalued the currency, with many organizations using the US dollar instead.

On 16 February 2006, the governor of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Dr Gideon Gono, announced that the government had printed ZWD 21 trillion in order to buy foreign currency to pay off IMF arrears.

In early May 2006, Zimbabwe’s government began rolling the printing presses (once again) to produce about 60 trillion Zimbabwean dollars. The additional currency was required to finance the recent 300% increase in salaries for soldiers and policemen and 200% for other civil servants.

In August 2006, the Zimbabwean government issued new currency and asked citizens to turn in old notes; the new currency (issued by the central bank of Zimbabwe) had three zeroes slashed from it.

In February 2007, the central bank of Zimbabwe declared inflation “illegal” and outlawed any raise in prices on certain commodities between March 1 and June 30, 2007. Officials have since arrested executives of some Zimbabwean companies for increasing prices on their products.

Peranan Makhluk

Allah memberikan peranan berbeza2 kepada setiap manusia,.. sebagai sarana utk mendekatkn diri kpd Allah.. Doktor, guru, ustazah, kiyai, dll… Sedangkn semua itu sama saja.
Tiada yg lebih.

Sbbtu lah timbul beberapa golongan seperti:-

1 – Golongan melakukan Tajrid.. Iaitu,melepaskn diri dari sesuatu..

Melepaskn diri dr urusan duniawi utk beribadah.

2. Golongan Sohibul Asbab – ataupun ahli sarana2. Org yg memerlukan sarana2… Cthnya, mahu jadi pandai, kena belajar Mahu kaya, kena kerja.

Dikatakan oleh Ibnu Atha’illah, org yg meninggalkan semua kerjanya semata2 untuk dakwah, atau untuk ibadah, sebenarnya itu adalah drpd tuntutan nafsunya yg tersembunyi.

Allah berfirman, "..walaa tansa nasibaka minaddunya…" – dan janganlah kamu lupakan bahagianmu drpd dunia..

Kita hendaklah sentiasa ingat bahawa setiap manusia itu dipersoalkan tanggungjawab atasnya..

Tanggungjawab mendidik keluarga, mencari rezki utk mereka, belajar dan tgjwb lain2 lagi..

Tajrid adalah suatu maqam yg tinggi, dan sohibul asbab juga merupakan suatu maqam.. Memahaminya haruslah dengan ilmu supaya tidak sesat dlm membuat keputusan2 hidup.

Moga Allah melimpahkn hidayahnya kepada kita..

Hidup ini mempunyai rahsia-rahsia tertentu untuk perlu diketahui

Dikatakan, Ihya Ulumuddin punyai banyak rahsia didalamnya hingga jilid pertamanya mampu membina sebuah negara.. Begitu pula buku Syarah Hikam- Ibnu Atha’illah.. Siapa yg memahami Syarah Hikam Ibn Atha’illah mampu survive dunianya & menjaga akhiratnya, ia sangat banyak mengandungi rahsia. Cuba pelajari.

1 Trillion Dollar Zimbabwe,

Nilainya bersamaan dengan 3 biji telur sahaja…

CFM: PM bagi kebenaran Injil dalam bahasa Melayu

oleh: Malaysiakini

Persekutuan Kristian Malaysia (CFM) mendakwa janji-janji Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Najib Razak bahawa tiada pengharaman kitab Injil dalam bahasa Melayu, telah tidak dipatuhi oleh pihak berkuasa.

CFM, yang merupakan badan gabungan bagi semua kumpulan Kristian di negara ini berkata, Najib pada perjumpaan tahun lalu berkata kitab-kitab berkenaan akan dibenar diagihkan secara bebas sekurang-kurangnya di Sabah dan Sarawak.

Menurut pengerusi CFM, Bishop Ng Moon Hing, perkara itu disampaikan kepada pemimpin CFM oleh beberapa menteri kabinet dan pembantu mereka pada Disember 2009.

Katanya, Najib juga telah dimaklumkan berhubung rampasan 5,000 lagi kitab suci penganut Kristian tahun lalu.

“Apabila diberitahu bahawa 5,000 lagi kitab Injil dirampas pada satu jamuan teh ketika sambutan Krismas yang lalu, (perdana menteri) melahirkan rasa terkejut kerana arahan tidak lagi menahan kitab yang dirampas di Pelabuhan Klang belum dilaksanakan.

“Namun, tidak ada apa-apa yang dilakukan oleh pihak berkuasa bagi memastikan kitab itu tidak ditahan,” kata Ng.

Menurut beliau, setakat ini, 30,000 salinan kitab itu masih ditahan di Pelabuhan Klang dan Pelabuhan Kuching. Injil dalam bahasa Melayu itu dikenali sebagai Perjanjian Baru, Mazmur dan Amsal.

Komen: Adakah 30,000 kitab injil  bahasa Melayu ini diagihkan hanya kepada orang2 cina / india di Malaysia?